Introduction to Zoroastrian Manuscripts

This short introduction to Zoroastrian manuscripts will briefly touch on the origins of the Zoroastrian religion, as well as key texts and languages associated with it.


Primary Sources

Skjærvø, Prods Oktor. The Spirit of Zoroastrianism. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2011.

The Multimedia Yasna:

Further Reading

Boyce, Mary. Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London, Boston & 

Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.

Hintze, Almut. “Scribes and Their Patrons: On the Merit of Copying Manuscripts in the Zoroastrian Tradition.” In Almut Hintze & Alan Vincent Williams (eds.), Holy Wealth: Accounting for This World and The Next in Religious Belief and Practice. Festschrift for John R. Hinnells (Iranica 24), 145–164. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2017.

Stausberg, Michael & Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina, eds. The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2015.

Discussion Questions

Why might a religious community prioritize oral over textual transmission of its sacred texts? What are the benefits of each?


O'Connell, Jamie. "Introduction to Zoroastrian Manuscripts," Middle Ages for Educators, December 1, 2023. Accessed [date].


Video Editor

Jeremy Stitts